(PhysOrg.com) — Marketers dream of finding ways to get something to “go viral” on the Internet. Indeed, viral marketing, whether it be through email, YouTube, Facebook or Twitter, has become the Holy Grail of online marketing campaigns. With viral marketing, it is possible for the message to reach millions in a matter of hours. Marketers and scientists alike have been studying this phenomenon in the hopes that it will yield information about human dynamics. “There has been a lot of research done on social networks,” Esteban Moro tells PhysOrg.com. “However, until now it has been rare to get feedback from an actual performed experiment. Most research on social media is done with data that is inferred. But we have real experimental data for the basis of our model.” Moro is a scientist at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences at Carlos III University in Madrid, Spain. Along with José Luis Iribarren at an IBM division based in Madrid, Moro devised a viral marketing experiment that provides some quantitative conclusions about how something goes viral online. Their work appears in Physical Review Letters: “Impact of Human Activity Patterns on the Dynamics of Information Diffusion.”“Most models of information diffusion through social media are based on the idea of homogeneity in human response,” Moro explains. According to Moro, most models are based around the average time that it takes for a person to respond to a request and then to pass it on. This model, while it might be useful in predicting some aspects of online marketing campaigns, does not adequately account for the reasons that some rumors, advertisements, content and even viruses suddenly explode worldwide in what is known as “going viral.”“Humans respond differently,” Moro continues. “We performed a viral marketing experiment and used the response to build a different model, based on the heterogeneity of human response.” The experiment consisted of seeding a campaign over the Internet that rewarded participants for passing it along via email to friends and colleagues. The email messages reached more than 30,000 individuals in 11 European countries, and Moro and Iribarren were able to track the spread of the piece of information through social networks. “Collectively, most information moves at a slower pace through networks than expected,” Moro says.But, if information moves slower than expected through social networks, how does one explain some information that “goes viral” quickly? Moro says that there is a tipping point of information spreading through social networks. The ability to surpass that tipping point and reach most of the collectivity is determined by those who are more actively involved in social media. “Some people respond to email within a couple of minutes. They are more active on social networks. If these people find something compelling, they respond quickly and propagate the information through their social neighborhood,” Moro says. “It’s about a difference in the way we schedule priorities, and differences in the way humans send information.” Time dynamics of the biggest viral cascade, from Spain. Each “snapshot” represents the process at different times. The circles represent participates and the arrows describe the propagation of the message. Colors are meant to help you keep track of different stages of the message propagation. Image credit: Esteban Moro and José Luis Iribarren. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. On the other hand, if information does not reach the tipping point needed to “go viral,” it is because that information is at the mercy of those who take longer to respond. Instead of capturing the interest of the fastest responders, some information merely moves slowly through social networks, sometimes lasting months or years as it continues to be pushed through social media channels as people get around to it after days or weeks. “Even though our experiment lasted only a couple of months,” Moro says, “we were still receiving responses after finishing it. People were still responding. It was just taking them longer to get around to it.”The model offers interesting insight into human dynamics. “Our work shows that there is no such thing as a typical time scale in human dynamics, and the impact of this fact in information diffusion,” Moro insists. “This sharply contrasts with current information diffusion models that base information spread on homogenous response time.” He also points out that this work could also be helpful in tracking the spread of fads, hoaxes, opinions or rumors. Moro says that IBM has a patent to detail a model for viral marketing campaigns. “Our model allows us to predict how many people get the campaign message the first day, and how long it will take the message to go through social networks. The model provides a mathematical framework for modeling efficiency in social networks.” More information: José Luis Iribarren, Esteban Moro, “Impact of Human Activity Patterns on the Dynamics of Information Diffusion,” Physical Review Letters (2009). Available online: link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.038702 . Copyright 2009 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: New model for social marketing campaigns details why some information ‘goes viral’ (2009, August 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-08-social-campaigns-viral.html The Physics of Friendship Explore further
(PhysOrg.com) — Two new studies demonstrate how viruses, such as the one responsible for polio, use good bacteria in the human (or mouse) gut to evade detection by the immune system. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Citation: New research shows how viruses use ‘good’ gut bacteria to bypass immune system (2011, October 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-10-viruses-good-gut-bacteria-bypass.html Researchers find gut bacteria teaches immune cells to see them as friendly This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In one study, Sharon Kuss and her colleagues from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, show that the poliovirus, as they write in their paper in Science, is able to latch onto large molecules on the surface of good bacteria and ride around in the gut. Those large molecules make up lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is a chemical that sets off the production of interleukin-10, a chemical that serves as a signal to the immune system to tell it that it’s a harmless bacteria, thus no need to attack. Meanwhile, Melissa Kane from the University of Chicago, and colleagues, have been doing similar work with the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), which also rides the LPS molecules on bacteria to escape detection. They have also published their results in Science.As most people are aware, the human body is loaded with bacteria, most of it good. Some types help ward off disease, others help to keep us clean. The largest population by far though, lives in our guts, which includes our stomachs, intestines and other organs. In addition to helping digest food, they also manufacture nutrients that help us survive. Without such good bacteria, its likely humans, and most other animals, would soon perish.To show what is going on with viruses using good gut bacteria for their own benefit, both teams take roughly the same approach. They insert massive amounts of antibiotics into the gut of a mouse to kill off virtually all of the bacteria residing there, then test to see how susceptible the host is to infection from the virus they are testing. Kuss et al showed that in addition to getting a free ride on the backs of the good bacteria, the viruses also tend to get better at being infectious agents as a result of their stay on the bacteria. In one test, the poliovirus became twice as good at infecting the host in just two hours time.In addition to showing that the MMTV receives the same advantages from good bacteria as the poliovirus in the first study, Kane and her team showed that baby mice that are born to mothers with sterile guts, who themselves then wind up with sterile guts as a result, are virtually immune to the virus, which is transferred from mother to baby after birth via breast milk. When good bacteria is introduced to their guts however, they then fall prey to the virus.Both of these studies show that the more that is learned about the relationship between our own cells, the various kinds of bacteria that live inside of us (both good and bad) and viruses, the more we come to see how complex and interrelated the whole system is. Findings like these show that simply swallowing antibiotics to quash an errant bacteria, or perhaps in some cases to kill off a virus that is getting a free ride, may not be as simple as it once seemed. Explore further
As the algae grows—mostly in the summer—it provides more shade for the building, helping to keep it cool (and serves as a sound buffer as well). Excess heat that builds up in the water in the tanks is transferred to saline water tanks underneath the building for use later. When the amount of algae growth in the tanks reach a certain point, some is harvested and taken to a processing facility inside the building. There the biomass is converted to biogas which can be burned to provide heat in the winter. Thus, the building makes use of both solar thermal and geothermal energy allowing it to be heated and cooled without using any fossil fuels. The design and construction of the BIQ has taken three years and has cost approximately €5 million, all funded by Internationale Bauausstellung (IBA) as part of the ongoing International Building Exhibition – 2013. The BIQ House is one of 16 projects undertaken by the group, with the goal of proving that cost effective ways of making bio-friendly buildings are available today. To highlight the building, the team has painted its exterior green and has added a giant cartoon-like bubble on one side with the word “Photosynthesis?” in it. © 2013 Phys.org Traditional architecture fuel-efficient Explore further (Phys.org) —A 15-unit apartment building has been constructed in the German city of Hamburg that has 129 algae filled louvered tanks hanging over the exterior of the south-east and south-west sides of the building—making it the first in the world to be powered exclusively by algae. Designed by Arup, SSC Strategic Science Consultants and Splitterwerk Architects, and named the Bio Intelligent Quotient (BIQ) House, the building demonstrates the ability to use algae as a way to heat and cool large buildings. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The building is to serve as a test case and will be studied by various architects and engineers from around the world to determine if the design is feasible and if so, to perhaps serve as a model when erecting buildings in other cities. Citation: First algae powered building goes up in Hamburg (2013, April 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-04-algae-powered-hamburg.html To make use of the algae, which the team retrieved from the nearby Elbe river, it was put into large thin rectangular clear cases. Inside, the algae live in a water solution and are provided nutrients and carbon dioxide by an automated system. Each tank was then affixed to the outside walls of the building onto scaffolding that allows for turning the tanks towards the sun—similar to technology used for solar collectors.
More information: Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 10:80 DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-10-80 Citation: Researchers find dogs sensitive to small variations in Earth’s magnetic field (2014, January 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-01-dogs-sensitive-small-variations-earth.html A team of researchers in the Czech Republic has found that dogs can now be added to the list of animals that are able to sense and respond to the Earth’s magnetic field. In their paper published in Frontiers in Zooology, the researchers describe field experiments they conducted that indicated that dogs prefer to defecate while in a North-South stance relative to the Earth’s axis, during times when the magnetic field is calm. Journal information: Frontiers in Zoology © 2014 Phys.org Explore further Dogs recognize familiar faces from images Intrigued by the growing list of animals that appear to have a magnetic sensitivity, the researchers focused on dogs to see if they too had any such abilities. After some initial observations, the team began to notice a pattern of behavior related to stance during defecation—that was enough to embark on some field studies.The field studies were conducted in an open field so as to ensure that the dogs weren’t being impacted by familiar surroundings—in all 70 dogs (37 breeds) were observed circling and defecating for a total of 1,893 times. The dogs exhibited, the team reports, a very clear inclination to defecate with their bodies aligned in a North-South stance. But, more tellingly, when the magnetic field was not calm, the dogs showed no such preference, suggesting that when there is a clear magnetic field, dogs can feel it, and for unexplained reasons, prefer to align themselves in a certain posture.The team also found that freedom was a factor—dogs on leashes didn’t appear to have as much of an inclination to align themselves in any particular direction as did dogs who were allowed to roam free in a field as they did their business.No one can say for sure why dogs might prefer to align themselves in a particular direction when defecating, of course, though the researchers suggest they might simply feel more comfortable. They note that their study also found that the dogs tended to intentionally avoid crouching in an East-West, alignment, perhaps finding it the most uncomfortable of all. Their study, they say, is the first to conclusively show that dogs have magnetic sensitivity.Other studies have found that other animals, such as cattle, deer, foxes, birds and even some species of fish adjust their actions according to the Earth’s magnetic field, though how they do so is still unclear in most instances. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Biology Letters More information: G. T. Lloyd et al. Probabilistic divergence time estimation without branch lengths: dating the origins of dinosaurs, avian flight and crown birds, Biology Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2016.0609AbstractBranch lengths—measured in character changes—are an essential requirement of clock-based divergence estimation, regardless of whether the fossil calibrations used represent nodes or tips. However, a separate set of divergence time approaches are typically used to date palaeontological trees, which may lack such branch lengths. Among these methods, sophisticated probabilistic approaches have recently emerged, in contrast with simpler algorithms relying on minimum node ages. Here, using a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for Mesozoic dinosaurs, we apply two such approaches to estimate divergence times for: (i) Dinosauria, (ii) Avialae (the earliest birds) and (iii) Neornithes (crown birds). We find: (i) the plausibility of a Permian origin for dinosaurs to be dependent on whether Nyasasaurus is the oldest dinosaur, (ii) a Middle to Late Jurassic origin of avian flight regardless of whether Archaeopteryx or Aurornis is considered the first bird and (iii) a Late Cretaceous origin for Neornithes that is broadly congruent with other node- and tip-dating estimates. Demonstrating the feasibility of probabilistic time-scaling further opens up divergence estimation to the rich histories of extinct biodiversity in the fossil record, even in the absence of detailed character data. © 2016 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from the U.K. and the U.S. has mapped the biggest dinosaur tree yet, and in so doing, has found that the creatures may have evolved 20 million years earlier than most in the field have thought. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, the team describes how they created the new tree using probabilistic methods and why the new findings suggest that the dinosaurs might have survived a prior mass extinction. Group builds most comprehensive family tree of birds to date This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Comparison of probabilistic APT dates (red bars, cal3; blue bars, Hedman; see the text) for key nodes in dinosaur phylogeny: Dinosauria I (Nyasasaurus as sister to Dinosauria), Dinosauria II (Nyasasaurus nested within Dinosauria), Avialae I (Archaeopteryx as first bird), Avialae II (Aurornis as first bird) and Neornithes (crown birds). Asterisks mark minimum bound or ‘traditional’ palaeontological estimate. Molecular and morphological clock dates for Neornithes are shown in the lower right corner (A–J; electronic supplementary material, table S3): circles indicate mean and horizontal bars the 95% HPD. Silhouettes were taken from public domain images on phylopic.org (Aurornis, Gareth Monger; Eoraptor, Scott Hartman; Vegavis, Matt Martyniuk), or modified with kind permission from works by Sergio Pérez (Archaeopteryx) and Nobu Tamura (Nyasasaurus). Credit: Biology Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2016.0609 Citation: Biggest map of dinosaur tree yet suggests they emerged 20 million years earlier than thought (2016, November 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-11-biggest-dinosaur-tree-emerged-million.html Explore further By examining dinosaur bones, scientists have been able to establish what they believe are reasonable estimates for the time period that dinosaurs existed. But such estimates have always left some room for error. In this latest effort, the researchers used two probabilistic methods to create a massive tree representing almost 1,000 species and calculated the date of first emergence of what we now call dinosaurs. The results from the studies matched, giving credence to the results. Their tree shows dinosaurs first appearing approximately 250 million years ago. Furthermore, the tree shows what are believed to have been the first birds branching off the tree approximately 165 to 172 million years ago. It also shows that the group that includes all known birds came to exist approximately 69 to 108 million years ago—during the Late Cretaceous, which, interestingly, was before the mass extinction that wiped out all the other dinosaurs.Notably, the tree shows dinosaurs coming into existence during a time prior to the oldest known dinosaur fossil, a Nyasasaurus, which has been dated to just 240 million years ago. This means researchers will have to rely on math and faith if they are to accept the new tree—at least until an older fossil is found. The team also believes that there is some evidence that indicates the timeline could be pushed back another 10 million years.The new timeline, if correct, would mean that the creatures that evolved into dinosaurs somehow managed to survive the Permo-Triassic extinction—believed to be the largest mass extinction that ever occurred.
Their findings are detailed — they can be read in full here — but the basic summary is that emotions are expressed in a huge variety of ways, which makes it hard to reliably infer how someone feels from a simple set of facial movements. To achieve this, tech companies like Microsoft, IBM, and Amazon all sell what they call “emotion recognition” algorithms, which infer how people feel based on facial analysis. For example, if someone has a furrowed brow and pursed lips, it means they’re angry. If their eyes are wide, their eyebrows are raised, and their mouth is stretched, it means they’re afraid, and so on. Clients can put this tech to use in a variety of ways, building everything from automated surveillance systems that look for “angry” threats to job interview software that promises to weed out bored and uninterested candidates. The review was commissioned by the Association for Psychological Science, and five distinguished scientists from the field were asked to scrutinize the evidence. Each reviewer represented different theoretical camps in the world of emotion science. “We weren’t sure if we would be able to come to a consensus over the data, but we did,” Barrett says. It took them two years to examine the data, with the review looking at more than 1,000 different studies. “Companies can say whatever they want, but the data are clear,” Lisa Feldman Barrett, a professor of psychology at Northeastern University and one of the review’s five authors, tells The Verge. “They can detect a scowl, but that’s not the same thing as detecting anger.” … “People, on average, the data show, scowl less than 30 percent of the time when they’re angry,” says Barrett. “So scowls are not the expression of anger; they’re an expression of anger — one among many. That means that more than 70 percent of the time, people do not scowl when they’re angry. And on top of that, they scowl often when they’re notangry.” Read the whole story: The Verge As artificial intelligence is used to make more decisions about our lives, engineers have sought out ways to make it more emotionally intelligent. That means automating some of the emotional tasks that come naturally to humans — most notably, looking at a person’s face and knowing how they feel.
The Lebanese parliament failed Wednesday for the 17th consecutive time to convene and elect a new president because of lack of the constitutionally required quorum.Speaker Nabih Berri issued a statement calling for a new session Jan 28 following the failure of the parliament to convene, Xinhua reported. According to the constitution, two-thirds of the 128-member parliament should be present for the election session to proceed, but only 50 MPs were present at the house Wednesday. Also Read – Pro-Govt supporters rally as Hong Kong’s divisions deepenBecause of the sharp political division among the Syrian-backed March 8 camp and the Western-backed March 14 camp, the parliament has failed since April 2014 in convening for the presidential election.The March 14 camp is backing head of the Lebanese Forces Samir Geagea for the post, while the March 8 camp is backing head of the Free Patriotic Movement MP Michel Aoun for president. The centrist Democratic Gathering, led by MP Walid Jumblatt, is backing MP Henri Helo for the post. Also Read – Pak Army ‘fully prepared’ to face any challenge: Army spokesmanLebanon has been without a president since the end of former president Michel Suleiman’s term May 25, but has witnessed a similar situation back in 1988 and 2007.Following the end of former president Amine Gemayel’s term in 1988, the parliament failed to elect a president and the post was only filled following the approval of the Taef agreement in 1989 when President Michel Moawad was elected. In July 2007, when former President Emile Lahoud’s term ended, the post was left vacant until May 2008 when the Doha agreement was approved and President Michel Suleiman was elected.According to the country’s power sharing pact, the president should be a Christian Maronite, the speaker a Shia and the premier a Sunni.
With four secular bloggers being killed by suspected Islamists in Bangladesh in recent months, police here have asked secular writers not to “cross the limit” and write anything which hurts religious beliefs of others.“Do not cross the limit. Do not hurt anyone’s religious belief,” Inspector General of Police AKM Shahidul Hoque said as investigators struggled to nab the killers of secular blogger Niloy Chakrabarty Neel who was hacked to death at his flat here on Friday. Also Read – Nine hurt in accident at fireworks show in French resortThe “freethinkers” should keep in mind that hurting someone’s religious sentiment is a criminal offence,
From Snow White to Tarzan, Robin Hood to Alice, Lord Rama to the Pandavas, Ali Baba to Winnie the Pooh, Dorothy (of Oz) to Harry Potter, from works of Shakespeare to Henry David Thoreau, Rudyard Kipling to Bill Bryson and Enid Blyton to Cheryl Strayed, there is one common thread, wholly or partly, to some of our most remembered and favourite literature – forests as a setting for key action.Earth’s dominant terrestrial ecosystem, forests are commonly taken to mean a large area with trees or other woody vegetation though there isn’t any common global definition – 800 definitions are available around the world! What is however more acceptable and indisputable is their role in human imagination and culture, be it folklore, fantastic or legendary, and modern literature, whether children or adult. They can represent a place of refuge or menace, of succour or challenge, of restful contemplation or exciting adventure, a metaphor for nature at its most basic and untrammeled by human civilising, and a source of sustenance – or danger. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’But best-served are those who take some benefit from their sojourn in the woods. As a Shakespearean character ruminates: “And this our life, exempt from public haunt,/Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,/Sermons in stones, and good in everything.”This was the Senior Duke, perfectly content in his exile in the Forest or Arden in “As You Like It” (Act II, Scene 1) but forests are not always that welcoming and instructive for the Bard’s other creations. In “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”, some unwelcome changes afflict various characters, especially poor Nick Bottom in the forest (though everything gets amicably and amenably solved in the end), while in another, the appearance of the Dunsinane forest (or a branch of it, excuse the Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflixpun) before Macbeth’s castle spells his doom!In ancient Hindu epics, Lord Rama and his brother Lakshman first exhibit their mettle by ridding some forests of demons before their eventful exile to the forest, as do the Pandavas who raise their capital after clearing a notorious forest and then spend part of their own exile in forests.But some of the most memorable and universally-known stories set in the woods – Snow White, Rapunzel, Red Riding Hood, Briar Rose, Hansel and Gretel and many more of brave young princes and fair maidens.
Drinking too much alcohol may disrupt the healthy balance in the lungs and impact your breathing, a new study has warned. In the study, adults who drink excessively were found to have less nitric oxide in their exhaled breath than adults who do not drink. The finding were published in the journal ‘Chest’, and is significant because nitric oxide helps protect against certain harmful bacteria that can cause respiratory infections.“Alcohol appears to disrupt the healthy balance in the lung,” said a researcher. Nitric oxide is a colourless gas produced by the body during respiration. The researchers examined data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES). It conducts interviews and physical examinations to assess the health and nutritional status of Americans.For the study the researchers have examined data from 12,059 adults who participated in NHANES between the years 2007 and 2012. Excessive drinkers were defined as heavy drinkers (more than one drink per day on average for women and more than two drinks per day for men) and people who binge drink at least once per month (four or more drinks per occasion for women and five or more drinks for men).In the sample population researchers examined, 26.9 percent of the participants weto be excessive drinkers. The researchers found that exhaled nitric oxide levels were lower in excessive drinkers than in adults who never drink, and the more alcohol an excessive drinker consumed, the lower the level of nitric oxide.In an asthma patient, the amount of exhaled nitric oxide in a breath test provides a good indication of how well the patient’s medication is working. “Excessive alcohol consumption might complicate the results of such tests. “Lung doctors may need to take this into consideration,” the researcher said.
Kolkata: Much to the delight of the forest lovers, the state Forest department has decided to keep some selective portions of various forests in North Bengal open for the tourists from mid-June to-mid September.The entire forest area in North Bengal remains closed for tourists from June 16 to September 15 during the monsoon season. “A good number of tour operators, resort owners and transport operators had submitted a deputation last year urging department to keep certain areas in the forest open during the monsoon. Tourists have also urged our forest officials at various national parks expressing their desire to witness the natural beauty of the forest during this season. So we have decided to keep certain areas open this time,” a senior official in the state Forest department said. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataThe season from June to September is the mating season for the animals and it is the responsibility of the department to ensure that they are not disturbed by any means. According to a notification undersigned by state Chief Wildlife Warden Ravi Kant Sinha, Kalipur Jungle Camp, Dhupjhora Eco Tourism camp under Gorumara National Park, Panjhora Jungle Camp, Murti Jungle Camp, Hornbill Jungle Camp and Mouchuki Dhupjhora Eco Tourism resort, which are also located in close proximity to Gorumara will be kept open including the route in Chapramari forest from the entrance gate to the watch tower. The Dakshin Khayerbari Tiger Rescue Centre and Mendabari Jungle camp under Jaldapara National Park , the Nature Interpretation Centre at Rajabhatkhawa, Jainti, Santrabari and Buxaduar upto Buxa Fort, Poro Eco Park and Sikiajhora eco tourism centre under Buxa Forest will also remain open for the tourists. However, the department will not allow any jeep safari or elephant safari in the forest during this period. “It is essential to provide a period of least disturbance in national park and wildlife sanctuaries during rainy season for rejuvenation of flora and fauna and to maintain biodiversity in the area,” the official said.
Conspiracies often inform us of mad stories about aliens, UFOs, the Pyramids of Egypt, why a certain plane mysteriously disappeared and was never found, or some clandestine agenda pushed by the government. Most of the time they are dismissed as nonsense, but then there are those odd cases where something alleged to be a conspiracy was really happening in reality.CIA’s obscure MK-ULTRA projectOne of the fishiest programs that the Central Intelligence Agency ever launched was Project MK-ULTRA.Veiled from the public eye, the project was approved under CIA director Allen Dulles in 1953 and was supported by the Technical Services Division.The program officially functioned until 1973, though its major experimenting chapter had concluded by 1964. Hundreds of people both from the U.S. and Canada, and also at least 30 institutions, unsuspectingly became part of the experiment.A page from the MK Ultra declassified documents which were handed over by the CIA following a Freedom of Information Act request as of 1995The purpose of the entire project was testing different substances that have mind-altering effects, including the psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD. Other drugs were used too, such as MDMA, methamphetamine, and even magic mushrooms.And why on Earth would anyone do that?At the peak of the Cold War, the CIA reportedly wanted to devise substances which were to improve their counterintelligence operations.Hundreds of different projects were advanced within Project MK-ULTRA. Some efforts were dedicated to developing a truth serum to boost interrogations with prisoners and spies. Others to isolate a drug that would make CIA agents resilient to any mind-altering effect caused by an opponent.American chemist Sidney Gottlieb involved in the MK Ultra project approves the LSD experiment subproject in a letter dated to June 9, 1953.The agency was quickly able to realize that some substances, such as LSD, were no joke; that it was inconvenient to utilize them for counterintelligence operations. One person died in 1953 because of a test where the hallucinogenic drug was used. Scientist Frank Olson, a CIA employee, was recklessly treated with a cocktail that was spiked with LSD without his knowledge.American author Ken Kesey was involved in the MK Ultra project while still a student at Stanford University. This is a picture of him in 1970, at his home in Springfield, Oregon. Photo by Robert Altman/Michael Ochs Archives/ Getty ImagesOthers, such as Ken Kesey, eventually became famed promoters of the hallucinogenic drug, using it for parties. The author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest participated voluntarily in MK-ULTRA while he was still at Stanford.Besides drugs, the program investigated other techniques and their effects. Think electroshock therapies, hypnosis or implants.Syphilis history: The notorious Tuskegee ExperimentBack in 1932, the word was out in Macon County, Alabama, that there was a new health program offered to African-Americans for free. It was advertised to treat “bad blood,” a local term which referred to several different maladies.Besides a free medical check and treatment, free food was also offered and, ominously, free burial insurance. Some participants who registered for the program definitely needed the insurance later on.An image from the notorious Tuskegee Syphilis Study: a health officer is taking a sample of blood from one participant, c. 1932.The free benefits merely cloaked the real intention of the program, named The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male.This too was a clandestine program, not run by the CIA, but by the U.S. Public Health Service. The objective was to monitor and study how the dangerous venereal infection progressed among patients who did not receive any treatment.Some 339 individuals were found to have syphilis, while 201 who didn’t carry the infection were kept on the clinical trial as a control group.A group photo men who were subjects of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiments, c. 1970.Those with syphilis were provided only with placebos, usually supplements and medicine like aspirin that was useless. Over time a number of patients developed severe health complications. Some of them died and researchers would investigate their bodies to acquire more information on the disease.The notorious research did not halt even when penicillin was endorsed as a medicine for syphilis treatment in 1947. Activities just continued at the Tuskegee Institute (as of 1985, this institution became the Tuskegee University).Tuskegee Syphilis Study participants talking with Nurse Eunice Rivers, a coordinator of the study, c. 1970.The Tuskegee Experiment finally ended in 1972 after the story was leaked to journalists and triggered a huge public backlash. By this point over 100 participants had lost their lives because of the program. Those who survived were financially compensated. The government also issued a public apology for the abhorrent activities.The Hillsborough football disasterIt was a perfect sunshine day on April 15, 1989, and soccer fans geared up for a semi-final clash of the FA Cup between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest. The designated venue for the match was Sheffield’s Hillsborough Football Stadium.Unfortunately, the date is remembered as one of the greatest tragedies that ever occurred in English sports history.Memorial to the 1989 disaster at Hillsborough Stadium. Photo by Superbfc CC BY-SA 3.0Liverpool fans were directed to enter the terraces reserved for them via the Leppings Lane entrance. A series of errors in mismanaging the huge volume of people was identified in the court hearings, but not until many years afterwards, even though footage revealed how tightly packed people in the terraces were.The problems began when the queues outside could not be processed fast enough due to insufficient turnstiles being in operation.When The Den football stadium in Bermondsey, south-east London, opened in 1993, it was recognized as the first new stadium that entirely complied with the safety guidelines of the Taylor Report. Photo by Richard Croft CC BY-SA 2.0At one point, David Duckenfield, the game’s chief superintendent, gave orders for the largest of the exit gates, Gate C, to be opened in order to ease congestion at the turnstiles. His decision only worsened the situation.The delay caused by trying to get 10,100 people through too few gates meant that by now kick-off was fast approaching and fans rushed through Gate C, making straight for the central pens which were already too full. Even when the match began, fans were still piling into the stadium.Hillsborough memorial at Anfield. Photo by Vincent Teeuwen CC BY 2.0Only a few minutes into the game, the situation was out of control. The terrifying human crush which unfolded claimed the lives of 96 Liverpool fans, while hundreds of others further suffered a range of injuries. Some of the victims were found to have died due to a condition called compressive asphyxia; that is a severe compression of the chest when breathing is made impossible. They were penned in by fences and crushed to death by the crowd.Hillsborough Memorial at Old Haymarket, Liverpool. Photo by John Bradley – Own work CC BY-SA 3.0It took decades for authorities to determine what really happened.Initially, the police reports alleged the disaster was the fault of the football fans themselves. They were accused of improper behavior, that they were not on time for the game and were drunk. Later investigations denied all such allegations and determined that both police officers, as well as the ambulance service, acted in negligence. Court trials on the Hillsborough disaster have still not ended to date.The secret Operation PaperclipOnce Germany was defeated in the aftermath of World War II, both American and British intelligence agents started a thorough search of the country, its universities, facilities, and institutions. One of the things they were after: tracking down the names of German engineers and scientists whose talent and knowledge had helped the Nazi regime.Group photograph of German rocket scientists at Fort Bliss, Texas, in 1946. Wernher von Braun, Ludwig Roth, and Arthur Rudolph are also in the photo.In a subsequent undercover operation, hundreds of German scientists, many of them with avid knowledge in rocket science, were brought to the U.S. Their assignment? To help the U.S. in the Cold War. This secretive effort, initially known as Operation Overcast, was denounced by many. Later on, it picked the name Operation Paperclip.V-2 Rocket launch on the German Baltic coast, 1943. Photo by Bundesarchiv, Bild 141-1880 / CC-BY-SA 3.0As well as using German knowledge for developing new weapons, Operation Paperclip was tasked with preventing information leaking to the Soviet side.Repatriation of the German scientists and engineers (1958). Photo by Bundesarchiv, B 145 Bild-F005116-0001 / Steiner, Egon / CC-BY-SA 3.0The assembly of recruited scientists included figures such as Wernher von Braun, whose team developed the destructive V-2 rockets for the Nazis. In the early 1960s, von Braun was invited to join NASA. His presence at the space agency cemented the success of the Apollo missions, and the American triumph in the Space Race.NASA Apollo moon landings conspiraciesThe deceptive Nayirah testimonyOn October 10, 1990, a 15-year-old girl who introduced herself simply as Nayirah delivered a heart-wrenching testimony to the Congressional Human Rights Caucus. At this point, the Persian Gulf War was in full swing. Iraq, under Saddam Hussein, had invaded its neighbor Kuwait.An image from 1992 showing the Kuwaiti M-84 main battle tanks. The tanks were made in Yugoslavia, and were transferred to Saudi Arabia for Operation Desert Shield. They were returned to Kuwait after the country’s liberation from Iraqi forces.The young girl made accusations that Iraqi soldiers had conducted abhorrent war atrocities, supposedly killing innocent infants by removing them from incubators. What Nayirah claimed in front of the Caucus was eventually used to back U.S. involvement in the conflict. The girl was recurrently cited following the testimony. Citations even came from the then U.S. President George H. W. Bush.President George Bush attending U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, November 22, 1990.Except the statement turned out to be fraudulent.The girl’s identity also turned out to be troublesome: She was the daughter of Kuwait’s Ambassador to the U.S. The entire testimony was a set up by a PR agency known by the name Hill & Knowlton.A fleet of F-15Es parked during Operation Desert Shield in 1992.In mid-January 1991, the U.S. went ahead with its operation to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait.The really dark side of the U.S. alcohol Prohibition EraThe Prohibition era tried to end U.S. drinking problems during the 1920s, but in reality, it just complicated things. Bootleggers, and the illicit sale and consumption of alcohol just thrived.Slipping some poison in the alcohol? That happened too.Police in Detroit capture alcohol manufacturing equipment in a secretive underground brewery.At one point during the Prohibition era, alcohol poisoning became a serious issue. Patients admitted to hospitals suffered from severe health complications and frequently died. Doctors often just didn’t know how to treat the poisoning.A police officer standing next to a wrecked vehicle which was carrying moonshine liquor, 1922.Later investigations reportedly showed that some bootlegged beverages were contaminated on purpose. Who was to blame? Clues indicated that the secretive wrongdoer was the U.S. government.New York, at the peak of Prohibition Era. Liquor is thrown into the sewer. Officers are watching on the side.As a desperate measure to combat the illicit drinking issue, government officials had opted for poisoning industrial alcohol stores where they knew bootleggers might go to steal alcohol stocks. The toxic flasks of gin or whiskey apparently traveled a long way as victims fell everywhere.Orange County Sheriff oversees dumping of illegal booze, Santa Ana, March 31, 1932. Photo courtesy Orange County Archives CC BY 2.0As you might imagine, such foul enforcement didn’t resolve anything. It just claimed the lives of an estimated 10,000 people by the time the Prohibition era ceased in 1933.Operation NorthwoodsAnother conspiracy of the Cold War era involves a plan in which the U.S. plotted a series of homicidal events that were to win public approval for beginning a military intervention in Cuba.And why would anyone do that? Let’s just say that the U.S. side was not happy with the newly established Cuban leader, Fidel Castro, at the beginning of the 1960s.“Justification for U.S. Military Intervention in Cuba.” This is a picture of the actual memorandum issued for Operation Northwoods.The conspiracy bore the name Operation Northwoods and various actions were “foreseen” to happen: destruction a U.S. ship at sea, perhaps the hijack of an airplane, and last but not least, deadly terrorist attacks carried out against cities on domestic soil.President John F. Kennedy speaks at Rice University, 1962. He was likely one of the persons who didn’t endorse the plan to proceed.Operation Northwoods was designated its own memorandum, and its third point reads: “Further, it is assumed that a single agency will be given the primary responsibility for developing military and para-military aspects of the basic plan. It is recommended that this responsibility for both overt and covert military operations be assigned the Joint Chiefs of Stuff.”Fortunately, the plot never came to fruition. President Kennedy was likely one of the persons who didn’t endorse the plan to proceed.
It sounds like DePodesta might be getting a pink slip before he print his next spreadsheet. New Browns GM John Dorsey has a lot of work to do for a franchise with one win in the last 2 seasons, and in an interview with Cleveland radio station WKNR 850, he didn’t mince words with his opinion of the previous front office.When asked a question about head coach Hue Jackson, the former Chiefs GM took a direct shot at the players on the current roster and those that acquired them:“You know what? You’ve got to get a guy like that (Hue Jackson) players. And you know what? I’ll come straight out with it. The guys who were here before, that system, they didn’t get real players.”The comments are clearly directed at previous Executive VP Sashi Brown, but probably don’t bode well for “Moneyball” pioneer, and current Chief Strategy Officer Paul DePodesta, who has attempted to bring his baseball analytics approach to the NFL. Advertisement
Also:-Top 5 destinations for Kirk CousinsGuests:Lee Jenkins – SI and The Crossover Senior Writer is in-studio talking All-Star weekend; why LeBron is good with an ensemble cast; if the Warriors are beatable or just cruising; and if Minnesota is close to contending.Michael Rappaport – Actor/Comedian and host of the I Am Rapaport Stereo Podcast is in-studio talking Laura Ingraham’s LeBron comments; why heDamon Harrison – Giants Defensive Lineman is in-studio to discuss his unusual road to the NFL; how he got the nickname “Snacks”; and why Odell Beckham is a good teammate. No downside to LeBron joining the Lakers No one knows which way LeBron James is leaning heading toward his 2018 free agency decision, but Colin thinks that a move to the Lakers would be a boost to LeBron’s and the NBA’s businesses.Some are saying LeBron’s legacy will be negatively impacted if he goes to the Lakers and loses to the Warriors again. Colin disagrees and doesn’t see any downside to the move. He thinks LeBron’s legacy is already set, and if the Lakers doesn’t work out, no one would remember in the long term. If he’s successful and leads a third organization to a title, it will help his legacy and career comparisons to Jordan. NBA tanking doesn’t workMavericks owner Mark Cuban recently made comments essentially confirming his team was tanking to end the year, but Colin doesn’t understand why.Even though tanking for draft position is trendy, there’s no evidence it actually works. Supporters will point to ‘The Process’ in Philly, but even with home run draft picks they are a borderline playoff team after 5 years in the tank. The Suns have embraced the suck and don’t even look close to being close to the playoffs.The top teams have never fully embraced tanking, even during down points. The only way to win in the NBA is with veterans. Tanking for unproven 19-year-old rookies that usually don’t pan out just doesn’t work.
Red Sox outfielder Mookie Betts was giving an in-game interview from the outfield during today’s spring training game against the Cubs when a batter interrupted the chat by belting a double over his head.Betts was still live on the air as he chased the ball down and eventually hit the cut off. Unfortunately for Mookie , he couldn’t just go to commercial.Double hit over Mookie Betts’ head while he is being interviewed by ESPN — “I ain’t getting this one, boys” — ESPN booth cracks up. pic.twitter.com/SXLhuaUfP9— Cork Gaines (@CorkGaines) March 27, 2018
Advertisement Bears fans may eventually forgive kicker Cody Parkey for missing the game-winning field goal against the Eagles that would have sent Chicago to the NFC Championship Game, but they’re not close to ready yet.Bears defensive tackle Akiem Hicks found this out when he decided to hop on Instagram Live during the Pro Bowl, and invited an enthusiastic young fan to join him on the chat. Things went sideways when Hicks asked the kid to say a couple of words to his followers and the kid promptly bashed Cody Parkey. Hicks was caught off guard and decided to cut the feed instead of prolonging the super awkward moment. Probably a good call.The pitfalls of live social media, example 7 billion.Some kid called out Cody Parkey on Akiem Hicks’ insta live😂😂😂 pic.twitter.com/Z4e5kQUtBD— CHICAGOBEARSTALK (@FeedBears) January 25, 2019
As the Lakers sit on the verge of being mathematically eliminated from the playoffs, it’s hard to call LeBron’s first year in L.A. anything other than a Class A dumpster fire. From an uncharacteristic groin injury that cost him a month, to the Anthony Davis trade negotiation fiasco, to bad chemistry with younger players, what was supposed to be the return of Showtime has never had any momentum or electricity.At this time last year, when everyone was fixated on LeBron’s next move, Colin proposed that James should sit out the current season and then make his decision. People mocked him for it, but it doesn’t sound so crazy now.He argued it would give him time to recharge his batteries and see what would be the best fit. It also would have given LeBron time to schmooze and recruit players to join him without having to be bothered with the NBA tampering rules.As a tired LeBron sits on the verge of missing the playoffs for the first time since his early 20’s, and adding another superstar looking like anything but a certainty for the Lakers, Colin’s plan doesn’t sound so bad now.
<span data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;” class=”mce_SELRES_start”></span>Lakers should add depth, not a third starAfter a year in L.A., the Lakers finally landed LeBron James a running mate by pulling of a trade for Anthony Davis, but Colin doesn’t think they should add a third star to the mix.Colin pointed out that the third star in LeBron’s Big 3’s (Kevin Love, Chris Bosh) are more like the third wheels that struggle to find their role and always see their production slashed. Instead, he thinks Rob Pelinka should load up on quality veteran depth, and shooting, if they want to be true title favorites. Guests:Chris Broussard, Bill Oram, and Doug Gottlieb Also:-Of Course the Lakers won the AD deal-Lonzo/Lakers era was unimpressive-Where Colin was right/wrong
Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global 3 min read December 10, 2013 If you’re someone who spends your day in meetings, then keeping up with them all can be a daunting task. One app, Tempo, is trying to make the experience a bit easier, taking a big data approach to your schedule and turning your calendar into a personal assistant.The free calendar app was created while founder Raj Singh was an Entrepreneur in Residence at Menlo Park, Calif.-based research institute SRI International, the birthplace of Apple’s personal assistant Siri. Tempo uses some of the same technology found in Siri. But where Siri requires you to ask a question and then get an answer, Tempo instead tries to anticipate what information you need, and provide it, before you even know you need it.“We like to say that it looks like a calendar, but it feels like an assistant,” Singh says.Tempo works alongside your existing calendar, adding rich information to each entry to make you more informed and better prepared for each meeting. Paired with your email and LinkedIn account, the app can bring in relevant information about each person you’re meeting with, the business they work for and any email or documents you might have relating to the meeting.Related: 3 Web-Based Tools You Probably Haven’t Heard of But Definitely Should Be UsingWhen you start communicating with someone over email, Tempo can automatically create an address book entry for that person. The app can also identify phone numbers in the signature line of emails, incorporating them automatically into your address book as well.And get this: Come meeting time, Tempo provides driving directions to your off-site meeting, or will dial you in — including access codes — to a conference call. If you’re running late, the app can text or email everyone in the meeting to let them know with a single tap.All that additional data is one of the things Singh feels sets Tempo apart from its competition.“I think the key difference is how we attack it [the calendar] as a sort of big data problem,” he says.Related: 5 Gadgets to Make Your Home a ‘Smarter’ PlaceSince its launch in February the app has been used to find and organize more than 15 million contacts for users, and has processed over 1 billion emails and documents.Singh says he sees a future where Tempo’s data could be used to determine things like how many sales calls it really takes to make a deal or what Manhattan Starbucks is most popular for meetings on a Tuesday.He also sees that data being exceptionally useful when layered on top of a tool like LinkedIn. Rather than just being able to see that two people are connected on the service, Tempo could show you how strong the connection is based on the number of meetings and emails between the two.Singh says the more Tempo learns, the more assistant-like it will become.Tempo is available now for iOS devices from the App Store, with support for other platforms expected in the future.Related: 5 Habits of Productivity App Super Users Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Register Now »
January 28, 2014 Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. 1 min read For all its coolness, Google Glass is a somewhat awkward-looking device. If you’ve been lucky enough to see one of the many Google Glass-wearing techies strolling around places like New York City and San Francisco, then you know they tend to stick out like a sore thumb.But it looks like that’s about to change.Google has announced something called the Titanium Collection. It’s a new line of Google Glass that come with prescription glasses and sunglasses. In other words, Glass just got a whole lot more useful and stylish.Related: More People to Get Google Glass as Explorer Program ExpandsThe Titanium Collection will include four frame shapes in gray with subtle accent colors inside the frames. Each will cost $225. Google also plans on adding three options for sunglasses which will cost $150 each.And if you need prescription lenses and have vision insurance, your policy might even help cover your new frames, Google says. Related: 10 Reasons Why Google Glass Is Doomed Register Now » Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals